The Ministry of Environment (MOE) of Japan was formed in 2001 from the former Environmental Agency established in 1971. MOE is responsible for government-wide environmental planning and policies under the Basic Environmental Law of 1993.
This review is prepared as part of the FAO Project “Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and monitoring in aquaculture”. The review provides a compilation, review and synthesis of existing EIA and environmental monitoring procedures and practices in aquaculture in the Asia-Pacific region, the largest aquaculture-producing region in the world. This review, as in other regions, gives special consideration to four areas related to EIA and monitoring in aquaculture including: (1) the requirements (2) the practice (3) the effectiveness and (4) suggestions for improvements.
In Japan, a system on EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) was first introduced in 1972 for public works. The systems relating to port and harbor planning, reclamation, power plants and the Shinkansen (super-express train) were established later around 1980. In the course of implementing EIA under these systems, the need for an integrated system/standardized rule was recognized. Therefore the environmental impact assessment bill was proposed to the Diet in 1981 but failed to pass in 1983.