Singapore Coastal Reclamation: History and Problems

Singapore has been undergoing coastal reclamation for four decades. As its population grows until more than four million, the Singapore government faces problem in providing ample land for residential, industrial and municipal activities. Some waterfronts and offshore islands in Singapore have been deformed or enlarged by some coastal reclamation projects. The reclamation has been particularly devastating. Some problems, namely environmental and territorial problems, have arisen some concerns from its neighboring countries. Singapore coastal reclamations have degraded some environmental quality parameters. Severe degradation of the marine environment has resulted, either by direct destruction of coral reef habitat, or indirect effects of increased suspended sediment concentration and fish mortality. Recently, the problems appear to be a regional problem since the projects receive many concerns, especially of environmentalists. Indonesia, which has contributed landfill material for more than two decades, has to face some environmental problems due to sands dredging and exporting activity. This paper is written to anchor some internal and external problems generated by Singapore coastal reclamation.